Special Section Papers

Effective Dose Reduction in Lateral Lumbar Spine Diagnostic Radiography Using X-Ray Tube Heel Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Avi Ben-Shlomo

Radiation Safety Division,
Soreq NRC,
Tel Aviv 61070, Israel

Gabriel Bartal

Department of Medical Imaging,
Meir MC,
Kfar Saba 4428164, Israel

Morris Mosseri

Cardiology Division,
Meir MC,
Kfar Saba 4428164, Israel

Shay Shabat

Department of Orthopedic Surgery,
Spinal Care Unit,
Meir MC,
Kfar Saba 4428164, Israel

Manuscript received June 12, 2016; final manuscript received April 11, 2017; published online May 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Jean Koch.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 3(3), 030917 (May 25, 2017) (2 pages) Paper No: NERS-16-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4036462 History: Received June 12, 2016; Revised April 11, 2017

The study aimed to determine how the effective dose (ED) in lumbar spine X-ray examinations is influenced by patient positioning considering the X-ray tube heel effect. The study used Monte Carlo simulation of the effective dose. Using the heel effect, positioning of the patient in the head to anode direction reduces the effective dose by 5% when compared with the head to cathode positioning.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ben-Shlomo, A. , Bartal, G. , Shabat, S. , and Mosseri, M. , 2013, “ Effective Dose and Breast Dose Reduction in Paediatric Scoliosis X-Ray Radiography by an Optimal Positioning,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 156(1), pp. 30–36. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ben-Shlomo, A. , Bartal, G. , Mosseri, M. , Avraham, B. , Leitner, Y. , and Shabat, S. , 2016, “ Effective Dose Reduction in Spine Radiographic Imaging by Choosing the Less Radiation-Sensitive Side of the Body,” Spine J., 16(4), pp. 558–563. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tapiovaara, M. , and Siiskonen, T. A. , 2007, “ PC-Based Monte Carlo Program for Calculating Patient Doses in Medical X-Ray Examinations,” STUK—The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland, Report No. STUK-A139.
Fung, K. K. L. , and Gilboy, W. B. , 2000, “ ‘Anode Heel Effect’ on Patient Dose in Lumbar Spine Radiography,” Br. J. Radiol., 73(869), pp. 531–536. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Division of adult lumbar spine beam width into 11 slices

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

X-ray tube heel effect. Beam profile along the anode–cathode axis for FSD of 100 cm and beam width of 30 cm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The contribution of each slice of the beam in adult LT LAT lumbar spine examination to ED in HTA and HTC positioning



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In