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Research Papers

Performance of Aluminide and Cr-Modified Aluminide Pack Cementation-Coated Stainless Steel 304 in Supercritical Water at 700 °C

[+] Author and Article Information
Nick Tepylo, Xiao Huang, Shengli Jiang

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Carleton University,
1125 Colonel By Drive,
Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada

Sami Penttilä

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.,
Espoo 02150, Finland

Manuscript received February 23, 2018; final manuscript received July 6, 2018; published online January 24, 2019. Editor: Igor Pioro.

ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci 5(1), 011014 (Jan 24, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: NERS-18-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4040889 History: Received February 23, 2018; Revised July 06, 2018

The choice of materials is of great concern in the construction of Gen IV supercritical water reactors (SCWR), particularly the fuel cladding, due to the harsh environment of elevated temperatures and pressures. A material's performance under simulated conditions must be evaluated to support proper material selection by designers. In this study, aluminide and Cr-modified aluminide coated 304, as well as bare stainless steel 304 as a reference material, were tested in supercritical water (SCW) at 700 °C and 25 MPa for 1000 h. The results showed that all three samples experienced weight loss. However, the aluminide coated 304 had 20 to 40 times less weight loss compared to Cr-modified aluminide coated and bare stainless steel 304 specimens, respectively. Based on scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results, spinel and hematite Fe2O3 formed on bare 304 after 1000 h in SCW while alumina was observed on both coated specimens, i.e., aluminide and Cr-modified aluminide surfaces. Oxide spallation was observed on the bare 304 and Cr-modified aluminide surface, contributing to a larger weight loss. Based on the results from this study, pure aluminide coating with Al content of 10–11 wt % demonstrated superior performance than bare 304 and Cr-modified aluminide coated 304.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Surface microstructure of bare 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 5

Cross section of bare 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 6

X-ray diffraction spectrum of bare 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 3

Weight change after 1000 h of exposure to SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 2

A schematic representation of the SCW autoclave system with water recirculation loops. The system consists of low- and high-pressure water recirculation loops in addition to the materials testing autoclave.

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Fig. 1

(a) Aluminide and (b) Cr-modified aluminide coatings (depth indicated by the arrows) in the as-coated condition (before surface polishing)

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Fig. 7

Surface microstructure of aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 8

Cross section of aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 9

X-ray diffraction spectrum of aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 10

Surface microstructure of Cr-modified aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 11

Cross section of Cr-modified aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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Fig. 12

X-ray diffraction spectrum of Cr-modified aluminide coated 304 after 1000 h of exposure in SCW at 700 °C

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