Tritium and Dust Source Term Estimation for European DEMOnstration Fusion Power Station during Anticipated Transients

[+] Author and Article Information
Guido Mazzini

Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVRez), Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec – Řež, Czech Republic

Tadas Kaliatka

Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403, Kaunas, Lithuania

Maria Teresa Porfiri

Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l’energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA) UTFUS-TECN, Via Enrico Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4043379 History: Received October 10, 2018; Revised March 29, 2019


The safety features of the nuclear fusion reactors are one the key issue for their attractiveness if compared with the fission plants. In fusion devices accidents, the high release of radioactive materials have low probabilities because the most part of abnormal transients lead to passive shutdown. It does not mean that radiological source terms such tritium and dust are not generated and released, but their inventory does not increase during abnormal events. The source terms inventory has to be assessed during normal operation and traced when accidents occur. For this reason, a study for qualification and quantification of the source terms was established with the aim to understand their production, deposition, penetration in the vacuum vessel and in the breeding blanket and their release during the main accident scenarios to comply with a future licensing process. The source term inventory involved in the release changes and requires a different confinement approach and mitigation. For the estimation of the source terms in the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Station (DEMO), a methodology was developed. It scales the tritium and dust source terms inside the vacuum vessel from the Experimental Reactor and it reports the tritium generated inside the breeder blanket from data quantified in other studies for DEMO. The methodology was updated as well as tritium and dust source term for DEMO 2016. Moreover, the tritium and dust release pathways were highlighted according to different accidental scenarios. These results were obtained for all blanket concepts under investigation in the ongoing DEMO EUROFusion project.

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