In the last two decades, several multi-segmented mathematical models of the total-human-body have appeared in the literature. While these models can handle very sophisticated load-motion situations, their effectiveness depends heavily on the proper biomechanical description and simulation of the major articulating joints of the human body. Among these joints, the most complicated and the least successfully modeled one has been the shoulder complex mainly due to the lack of an appropriate biomechanical data base as well as the anatomical complexity of the shoulder region. In 1984, the senior author and his associates proposed a new kinematic data collection methodology by means of sonic emitters and associated data analysis technique. Based on this data collection methodology, Part I of this paper establishes a statistical data base for the shoulder complex sinus of the male population of ages 18–32. Estimates for the population mean and standard deviation as well as their confidence intervals are presented. The results are expressed in functional expansion form relative to a locally defined joint axis system as well as relative to the torso-fixed coordinate system in the form of globographic representation.
Statistical Data Base for the Biomechanical Properties of the Human Shoulder Complex—I: Kinematics of the Shoulder Complex
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Engin, A. E., and Chen, S. (August 1, 1986). "Statistical Data Base for the Biomechanical Properties of the Human Shoulder Complex—I: Kinematics of the Shoulder Complex." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 1986; 108(3): 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3138605
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