A new prototype model for whole limb heat transfer is proposed wherein the countercurrent heat exchange from the large central arteries and veins in the core of the limb is coupled to microvascular models for the surrounding muscle and the cutaneous tissue layers. The local microvascular temperature field in the muscle tissue is described by the bioheat equation of Weinbaum and Jiji . The new model allows for an arbitrary axial variation of cross-sectional area and blood distribution between the muscle and cutaneous tissue, accounts for the blood flow to and heat loss from the hand and treats the venous return temperature and surface temperature distribution as unknowns that are determined as part of the solution to the overall boundary value problem. Representative solutions are presented for a wide range of environmental conditions for a limb in both the resting state and during exercise.
A Combined Macro and Microvascular Model for Whole Limb Heat Transfer
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Song, W. J., Weinbaum, S., Jiji, L. M., and Lemons, D. (November 1, 1988). "A Combined Macro and Microvascular Model for Whole Limb Heat Transfer." ASME. J Biomech Eng. November 1988; 110(4): 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3108440
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