Ultrasound heart catheters are used to measure the velocity in coronary arteries. However, the act of introducing a catheter into the vessel disturbs the very flow being measured. We used laser Doppler anemometry to measure the velocity distribution in an axially symmetric model, both with and without a catheter inserted. The catheter reduced the center-line velocity by as much as 60 percent at a distance of 2 mm downstream from the catheter, and by as much as 25 percent at a distance of 10 mm. This means the velocity measured with an ultrasound catheter does not show the maximum velocity of the undisturbed flow in the tube center. In the constriction, however, the measured velocities with the LDA and ultrasound catheter are almost the same. Thus, catheter measurements in the stenosis achieve accurate results. The velocity profile in the stenosed areas is flattened over nearly the whole cross section. The velocity is extremely reduced only close to the wall. The measurements outside of the stenosis lead to large differences which need to be studied carefully in the future. The disturbed flow finally disappeared 15 mm downstream of the catheter. The measurements were done at steady flow using a glycerine water solution with a dynamic viscosity of 4.35m Pas. In future studies, these experiments will be repeated for pulsatile flow conditions using non-Newtonian blood-like fluids.
Correlation Between LDA and Ultrasound Heart Catheter Measurements in a Stenosed Arterial Model
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Liepsch, D., Poll, A., and Blasini, R. (February 1, 1995). "Correlation Between LDA and Ultrasound Heart Catheter Measurements in a Stenosed Arterial Model." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 1995; 117(1): 103–106. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2792257
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