The joint forces and moments are commonly used in gait analysis. They can be computed by four different 3D inverse dynamic methods proposed in the literature, either based on vectors and Euler angles, wrenches and quaternions, homogeneous matrices, or generalized coordinates and forces. In order to analyze the influence of the inverse dynamic method, the joint forces and moments were computed during gait on nine healthy subjects. A ratio was computed between the relative dispersions (due to the method) and the absolute amplitudes of the gait curves. The influence of the inverse dynamic method was negligible at the ankle (2%) but major at the knee and the hip joints (40%). This influence seems to be due to the dynamic computation rather than the kinematic computation. Compared to the influence of the joint center location, the body segment inertial parameter estimation, and more, the influence of the inverse dynamic method is at least of equivalent importance. This point should be confirmed with other subjects, possibly pathologic, and other movements.
Influence of the 3D Inverse Dynamic Method on the Joint Forces and Moments During Gait
Dumas, R., Nicol, E., and Chèze, L. (April 19, 2007). "Influence of the 3D Inverse Dynamic Method on the Joint Forces and Moments During Gait." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2007; 129(5): 786–790. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2768114
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