In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs—including their cartilage tissue—as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion of the condylar surface that articulates with the tibia during knee flexion-extension, the determined center points approximate the location of the centers of rotation. The results suggest that the concept of a fixed flexion-extension axis is not applicable for every specimen.
Anatomical Study of the Radius and Center of Curvature of the Distal Femoral Condyle
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Kosel, J., Giouroudi, I., Scheffer, C., Dillon, E., and Erasmus, P. (August 16, 2010). "Anatomical Study of the Radius and Center of Curvature of the Distal Femoral Condyle." ASME. J Biomech Eng. September 2010; 132(9): 091002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4002061
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