This study was conducted to compare the heat shock responses of cells grown in 2D and 3D culture environments as indicated by the level of heat shock protein 70 expression and the incidence of apoptosis and necrosis of prostate cancer cell lines in response to graded hyperthermia. PC3 cells were stably transduced with a dual reporter system composed of two tandem expression cassettes—a conditional heat shock protein promoter driving the expression of green fluorescent protein (HSPp-GFP) and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter controlling the constitutive expression of a “beacon” red fluorescent protein (CMVp-RFP). Two-dimensional and three-dimensional cultures of PC3 prostate cancer cells were grown in 96-well plates for evaluation of their time-dependent response to supraphysiological temperature. To induce controlled hyperthermia, culture plates were placed on a flat copper surface of a circulating water manifold that maintained the specimens within ±0.1 °C of a target temperature. Hyperthermia protocols included various combinations of temperature, ranging from 37 °C to 57 °C, and exposure times of up to 2 h. The majority of protocols were focused on temperature and time permutations, where the response gradient was greatest. Post-treatment analysis by flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the incidences of apoptosis (annexin V-FITC stain), necrosis (propidium iodide (PI) stain), and HSP70 transcription (GFP expression). Cells grown in 3D compared with 2D culture showed reduced incidence of apoptosis and necrosis and a higher level of HSP70 expression in response to heat shock at the temperatures tested. Cells responded differently to hyperthermia when grown in 2D and 3D cultures. Three-dimensional culture appears to enhance survival plausibly by activating protective processes related to enhanced-HSP70 expression. These differences highlight the importance of selecting physiologically relevant 3D models in assessing cellular responses to hyperthermia in experimental settings.
Thermally Induced Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Heat Shock Protein Expression in Three-Dimensional Culture
Manuscript received January 14, 2014; final manuscript received March 17, 2014; accepted manuscript posted March 24, 2014; published online May 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ram Devireddy.
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Song, A. S., Najjar, A. M., and Diller, K. R. (May 12, 2014). "Thermally Induced Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Heat Shock Protein Expression in Three-Dimensional Culture." ASME. J Biomech Eng. July 2014; 136(7): 071006. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4027272
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