The head impact exposure experienced by football players at the college and high school levels has been well documented; however, there are limited data regarding youth football despite its dramatically larger population. The objective of this study was to investigate head impact exposure in middle school football. Impacts were monitored using a commercially available accelerometer array installed inside the helmets of 17 players aged 12–14 years. A total of 4678 impacts were measured, with an average (±standard deviation) of 275 ± 190 impacts per player. The average of impact distributions for each player had a median impact of 22 ± 2 g and 954 ± 122 rad/s2, and a 95th percentile impact of 54 ± 9 g and 2525 ± 450 rad/s2. Similar to the head impact exposure experienced by high school and collegiate players, these data show that middle school football players experience a greater number of head impacts during games than practices. There were no significant differences between median and 95th percentile head acceleration magnitudes experienced during games and practices; however, a larger number of impacts greater than 80 g occurred during games than during practices. Impacts to the front and back of the helmet were most common. Overall, these data are similar to high school and college data that have been collected using similar methods. These data have applications toward youth football helmet design, the development of strategies designed to limit head impact exposure, and child-specific brain injury criteria.
Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Middle School Ages 12–14 Years
Manuscript received March 20, 2013; final manuscript received June 6, 2014; accepted manuscript posted June 19, 2014; published online July 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Barclay Morrison.
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Daniel, R. W., Rowson, S., and Duma, S. M. (July 3, 2014). "Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Middle School Ages 12–14 Years." ASME. J Biomech Eng. September 2014; 136(9): 094501. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4027872
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