The increasingly higher energy density afforded by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has made them the energy storage technology of choice in electric vehicles that have been witnessed unprecedented growth in recent years. Considering the complicated working scenarios of electric vehicles, mechanical, electrochemical, and temperature abuse may lead to failure of the LIBs and possibly trigger catastrophic consequences in some extreme accidents. There is therefore a pressing need to address battery safety issues in LIBs by developing state-of-the-art theories, establishing effective models, and implementing in-situ/ex-situ/operando characterization methodologies.

There are two paramount events in LIB that trigger safety issues, namely, internal short circuit (ISC) and thermal runaway (TR). The direct cause for ISC is the failure of the separator. However, multiple factors, such as active particle penetration and Li dendrite growth, can lead to the failure of the separator. On the other hand, TR is set off by the excess heat accumulated within...

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