Chemical-assisted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has recently received a great deal of attention as a means of improving the efficiency of oil recovery processes. Producing heavy oil is technically difficult due to its high viscosity and high asphaltene content; therefore, novel recovery techniques are frequently tested and developed. This study contributes to general progress in this area by synthesizing an acidic Ni-Mo-based liquid catalyst (LC) and employing it to improve heavy oil recovery from sand-pack columns for the first time. To understand the mechanisms responsible for improved recovery, the effect of the LC on oil viscosity, density, interfacial tension (IFT), and saturates, aromatics, resin, and asphaltenes (SARA) were assessed. The results show that heavy oil treated with an acidic Ni-Mo-based LC has reduced viscosity and density and that the IFT of oil–water decreased by 7.69 mN/m, from 24.80 mN/m to 17.11 mN/m. These results are specific to the LC employed. The results also indicate that the presence of the LC partially upgrades the structure and group composition of the heavy oil, and sand-pack flooding results show that the LC increased the heavy oil recovery factor by 60.50% of the original oil in place (OOIP). Together, these findings demonstrate that acidic Ni-Mo-based LCs are an effective form of chemical-enhanced EOR and should be considered for wider testing and/or commercial use.