The four-valve head of a VTEC engine was mounted on an open cylinder and the valves and fuel injection system operated as in the engine with a rotational speed of 1200 rpm. Local measurements of droplet characteristics were obtained with a phase-Doppler velocimeter and iso-octane injected over 5 ms intervals, corresponding to 36 crank angle degrees, with manifold depression of 20 mbar. The results show that most of the fuel droplets were located close to the liner and on the side of the cylinder adjacent to the exhaust valves. In the plane of the measurement, 10 mm below TDC, the liquid flux diminished as the initiation of injection was advanced before opening of the inlet valves. With injection with the inlet valves closed, there were two waves of droplets, one from each of the two valves and separated by 60 deg CA and both with the Sauter mean diameter of about 120 μm. With injection with the inlet valves open, most of the droplets emerged from the main inlet valve and with Sauter mean diameters of about 50 μm, smaller than those of the unconfined spray.

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