The problem of buoyancy-induced secondary flow in fluid-saturated porous media is examined using a numerical model. The natural convection is coupled either with a forced axial flow or uniform internal heat generation. In both cases the model equations are shown to exhibit dual solutions over certain ranges of flow parameter. In the two-parameter space of aspect ratio and Grashof number, the flow transition between the two-vortex and four-vortex pattern can be explained in terms of a tilted cusp.
Multiple Solutions for Buoyancy-Induced Flow in Saturated Porous Media for Large Peclet Numbers
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Islam, R. M., and Nandakumar, K. (November 1, 1986). "Multiple Solutions for Buoyancy-Induced Flow in Saturated Porous Media for Large Peclet Numbers." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. November 1986; 108(4): 866–871. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3247025
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