An analytic mechanistic force model has been developed to simulate the cutting forces in milling operations. Steps taken to develop the model consisted of cutter surface representation, chip removal kinematics, cutter force definition, and determination of the integration limits from the force equations. The cutter surface is represented by ruled surfaces that are a function of cutter geometry. Cutter forces are determined by integrating the pressure and friction loads acting on these cutter surfaces. The integration limits that are functions of the rotation angle are established. Several techniques dealing with the process parameters are discussed. The model uses process dependent parameters representing normal pressure, chip flow friction, and chip flow kinematics. The paper discusses how process data can be used to establish values for the parameters.

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