Continuous drive friction welding (CDW) is a state-of-the-art solid-state welding technology for joining metallic components used in aerospace, oil and gas, and power generation industries. This study summarizes the results of mechanical and microstructural investigations on a modified AISI-8630 steel subjected to CDW. The effects of welding process parameters, including rotational speed, friction, and forge forces, during CDW were explored to determine an optimum welding condition. The mechanical properties of the weld, and microstructural characteristics across different regions of the weld were measured and examined. The microstructure characterization results suggest that the weld zone (WZ) experiences temperatures above the Ac3 and the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) experiences temperatures between Ac1 and Ac3 of the material. Investigations with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) demonstrated the occurrence of strain-induced dynamic recrystallization in the weld. The weld demonstrated higher yield and ultimate tensile strengths at the expense of ductility and hardening capacity compared to the base metal (BM). The strain-hardening profiles of the welds exhibited a dual-slope characteristic, an indication of different levels of plastic deformation experienced by the constituent phases (i.e., martensite, bainite and ferrite) present in the microstructure. The maximum strength-to-ductility combination and static toughness values were obtained for the weld produced under the highest rotational speed, maximum friction force and an intermediate forge force of 1200–1400 rpm, 375–425 kN, and 600–650 kN, respectively.