As a mechanism for joining tissues, thermal tissue fusion possesses several key advantages over more standard methods like suturing. Thermal tissue fusion joins tissues by the application of heat and pressure, creating watertight seals that tend to scar less and heal faster than traditional bonding methods [1,2]. As a result of these advantages, thermal tissue fusion is widely employed in laparoscopic hemostasis during surgery [3]. Despite its widespread use, however, tissue fusion is not well understood. The behavior of the tissue during fusion and the mechanism of bond formation remain largely unexplored.

Thermal tissue fusion can be accomplished using a variety of methods, including laser, ultrasound, bipolar current, and direct contact heating. While these methods vary in their form of energy delivery, they all rely on the basic application of heat and pressure to join tissue. Fusion results when the extracellular matrix forms a...

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