The current path to become a surgeon follows the Halstedjan model of apprentice-style training, in which a resident remains under the shadow of a senior surgeon [1,2]. The resident starts by observing the surgeon and then gradually moves on to assist him. Though the process provides immediate mentor feedback through one-on-one interaction, it fails to carry out a systematic and consistent evaluation. All of the assessment is based on a senior surgeon's subjective appraisal. Moreover, the requirement of performing a real procedure under the supervision of an experienced surgeon puts extra financial pressure on the medical school curriculum [2]. The advent and advancement of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have made mastering such skills even more difficult, particularly psychomotor. Due to the increased complexity in required surgical skills and due to a need for a more consistent and systematic evaluation, there has been an increasing demand for...

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