Tests have been conducted on freshwater columnar ice samples to determine the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength of the ice. Four parameters were varied. The confining pressure was increased up to 2.85 MPa (400 psi) in steps of 0.7 MPa (100 psi). The strain rate was varied in order to obtain the ductile to brittle transition peak. Temperature was kept mainly at −2°, with two series at −10°C and −20°C, and samples were machined with axes parallel, perpendicular or at a 45-deg angle to the direction of ice growth. The results are presented within their original context, but analyzed with reference to recent studies conducted on the multiaxial behavior of ice.
Triaxial Testing of Freshwater Ice at Low Confining Pressures
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Nadreau, J. P., Nawwar, A. M., and Wang, Y. S. (August 1, 1991). "Triaxial Testing of Freshwater Ice at Low Confining Pressures." ASME. J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. August 1991; 113(3): 260–265. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2919929
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