Cryogenic fluid damper seals operating close to the liquid-vapor region (near the critical point or slightly sub-cooled) are likely to develop a two-phase flow region which affects the seal performance and reliability. An all-liquid, liquid-vapor, and all-vapor, i.e., a “continuous vaporization” bulk flow model for prediction of the seal dynamic forced response is given in Part I. The numerical method of solution of the flow equations is detailed here. Computed predictions for static seal characteristics, leakage and axial pressure drop, correlate well with existing measurements for a gaseous nitrogen seal and a liquid nitrogen seal with two-phase at the seal exit plane. The effects of two-phase flow regimes on the dynamic force coefficients and stability of an oxygen damper seal are discussed. Fluid compressibility effects, particularly for mixtures with low mass content of vapor, are of utmost importance. Under these conditions, an increase on seal direct stiffness and reduction of whirl frequency ratio are shown to occur.
Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in Cryogenic Damper Seals—Part II: Model Validation and Predictions
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Arauz, G. L., and San Andre´s, L. (April 1, 1998). "Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in Cryogenic Damper Seals—Part II: Model Validation and Predictions." ASME. J. Tribol. April 1998; 120(2): 228–233. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2834414
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