This work investigates how uncertainties in the balancing weights are propagating into the vibration response of a high-speed rotor. Balancing data are obtained from a 166-MW gas turbine rotor in a vacuum balancing tunnel. The influence coefficient method is then implemented to characterize the rotor system by a deterministic multi-speed and multi-plane matrix. To model the uncertainties, a non-sampling probabilistic method based on the generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) is employed. The uncertain parameters including the mass and angular positions of the balancing weights are then expressed by gPCE with deterministic coefficients. Assuming predefined probability distributions of the uncertain parameters, the stochastic Galerkin projection is applied to calculate the coefficients for the input parameters. Furthermore, the vibration amplitudes of the rotor response are represented by appropriate gPCE with unknown deterministic coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined using the stochastic collocation method by evaluating the gPCE for the system response at a set of collocation points. The effects of individual and combined uncertain parameters from a single and multiple balancing planes on the rotor vibration response are examined. Results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations, showing excellent agreement.